Galileo System of Satellites of European Union: Components and Services (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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  • Galileo is the European Union radio navigation program that was launched by the European Commission and developed jointly with the European Space Agency. It is named after the famous Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei.
  • It will open the door to a revolution comparable to that generated by mobile phones. In addition, Galileo promises a new generation of universal services in various sectors, such as transport, telecommunications, agriculture and fisheries.
Galieo Implementation Plan

Services of Galileo Program

  • The Galileo program will be managed and controlled by civilians and will offer a guarantee of quality and continuity of service that is essential for many applications. Galileo provides the provision of a large variety of services.
  • Some of the services will be provided autonomously by Galileo and others will result from the combined use of Galileo and other systems. Galileo will provide multiple levels of service to users throughout the world. Five services are planned:
    • An open service will be free of direct user charges;
    • A commercial service will combine value-added data to a high-accuracy Positioning service;
    • Safety-of-life (SOL) service for safety critical users;
    • Public regulated service strictly for government-authorized users requiring a higher level of protection;
    • Support for search and rescue

Components of Galileo

  • Like GPS, the Galileo system also consists of following three components, Namely:
    • Space Segment
    • Control Segment
    • User Segment

Space Segment

  • It comprises a constellation of 27 satellites with 3 operational in orbit spares, in medium height circular orbits at km above the Earthีšs surface.
  • Orbits have inclination and a 14 hr 22 min period. Satellites are located in three orbital planes, where nine operational satellites are equally spaced in each orbital plane and 1 spare satellite per plane is provided.
  • Therefore, orbital and constellation parameters of Galileo and GPS will be different; at any time and any location on the Earth. The maximum number of visible satellites is 25 (13 from Galileo and 12 from GPS) , 21 (11 from Galileo and 10 from GPS) and 17 (9 from Galileo and 8 from GPS) .
Space Segment

Control Segment

  • Its main functions are satellite and mission control. Satellite control includes constellation management through monitoring and control.
  • It also determines and disseminates integrity information (warning alerts within time-to-alarm requirements) on a global basis.
  • The Galileo control centre is the core of the system and includes all control and processing facilities.
  • Further components of the ground control segment are the Galileo sensor stations, which collect navigation data from the Galileo satellites as well as meteorological and other required environmental information.
Control Segment

User Segment

  • This includes the family of different types of user receivers, with different capabilities of using the Galileo signals according to the various services.
  • Users must be equipped with adequate multifunctional terminals to take full benefit from all Galileo services (global, local, and combined) . The functions implemented in the user terminal should allow the user to receive directly the actual Galileo receiver.
Galieo Service Favilities

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