Satellites and Earth Resource Satellites: History and Importance (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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Satellite

  • Satellite is an object that revolves in a closed orbit around a planet or the sun, but an artificial satellite is used to revolve around the earth for scientific research, earth applications, or Military Reconnaissance.
  • Satellite images can make weather forecasting conditions much more clear-cut by showing what is happening in any given location. These images can predict heavy showers, snow storms or even light rain or flurries.
  • Satellite images have made weather forecasting much more truthful and functional than it was not so many years ago because of the details and quantity of information obtainable.
  • The Russians launched Sputnik 1 on October 4,1957, as the first satellite ever to be in space. There are various satellites; some of them are Communication satellite which is used for audio & data transmission, Earth observation satellites which are used for photographing the earth to observe the earthquake.

Earth Resources Satellite

  • ERS (Earth Resources Satellite) launched by ESA (European Space Agency) . Their primary mission was to monitor Earthีšs oceans, ice caps, and coastal regions.
  • They provide systematic, repetitive global measurements of wind speed and direction, wave height, surface temperature, surface altitude, cloud cover, and atmospheric water vapor level.
  • The satellites provided systematic, repetitive global measurements of wind speed and direction, wave height, surface temperature, surface altitude, cloud cover, and atmospheric water vapor level.
  • Data from ERS-1 were shared with NASA under a reciprocal agreement for Sea sat and Nimbus 7 data. ERS-2 carries the same suite of instruments as ERS-1 with the addition of the Global Ozone Measuring Equipment (GOME) which measures ozone distribution in the outer atmosphere.
  • Having performed well for nine years โ€“ more than three times its planned lifetime โ€“ the ERS-1 mission was ended on March 10,2000, by a failure in the onboard attitude control system.
  • The length of its operation enabled scientists to track several El Nino episodes through combined observations of surface currents, topography, temperatures, and winds.
  • The measurements of sea surface temperatures, critical to the understanding of climate change by the ERS-1 Along-Track Scanning Radiometer were the most accurate ever made from space. All these important measurements are being continued by ERS-2.

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