Vector Data Analysis and Broad Elements of Spatial Analysis (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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As a GIS stores both attribute and spatial data, analysis can be conducted on both types of data – however, it is the spatial analysis capability that sets GIS apart from database applications.

A set of techniques involving all the transformations, manipulations and methods that can be applied to spatial data to extract meaningful information necessary for various applications.

Figure Shows Vector and Raster Data Anlaysis in GIS

It turns raw data into useful information that greatly helps people understand real-world situations. It requires access not only to the locations of objects but also to their corresponding to the attribute data.

Vector data analysis uses the geometric objects of point, line, and polygon. The accuracy of analysis results depends on the accuracy of these objects in terms of location and shape. Topology can also be a factor for some vector data analyses such as buffering and overlay.

Broad Elements of Spatial Analysis


The accurate portrayal of spatial patterns


The systematic exploration of spatial relationships to understand different phenomena


The development of simulation models that forecasts data

Spatial analysis is the process that turns raw input spatial data into value-added useful data or information that ultimately supports decision making and reveals hidden or unknown patterns.

Tools for Vector Analysis

Common vector analysis tools are:

  • Buffering
  • Overlay
  • Other feature manipulation tools

These are discussed in next section.

This Diagram Shows Vector Data Analysis Tools

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