# Physical and Cost Distance Dataset: Examples of Cost Distance Tools (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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Objective of the cost tools is to determine the least costly path to reach a source for each cell location in the analysis window. The least-accumulative cost to a source, the source that allows for the least-cost path, and the least-cost path itself must be determined for each cell. The cost distance tools are like Euclidean tools, but instead of calculating the actual distance from one location to another, the cost distance tools determine the shortest weighted distance (or accumulated travel cost) from each cell to the nearest source location. These tools apply distance in cost units, not in geographic units.

## Examples of Cost Distance Tools

These include:

• Cost Distance gives the distance to the nearest source for each cell in the raster, based on the least-accumulative cost over a cost surface.
• Cost Back Link gives the neighbor that is the next cell on the least-accumulative cost path to the nearest source.
• Cost Allocation gives the nearest source for each cell, based on the least-accumulative cost over a cost surface.
• Cost Path gives the path with the least cost from a source to a destination.
• Cost Connectivity gives the least-cost connectivity network between two or more input regions.

## Physical Distance Dataset

Cost data cannot be set when using Cost Distance to create a physical distance raster. This functionality will use Euclidean distance to create a result distance raster when the Cost Dataset is null. You can choose whether to create physical allocation dataset and physical direction dataset. In the physical direction raster dataset, every cell was given the azimuth between itself and its nearest source cell.

You can set Max Distance when creating a physical distance raster. 0 means there is no limit to the distance. If you have set the Max Distance to a non-zero value, the value of the cells whose physical distance are greater than the Max Distance will be set to NoData in distance raster, allocation raster and direction raster.

The following are examples of an allocation, direction, and distance dataset created based on the physical distance with the point dataset as the source dataset.