Types of Operation: Shortest Path, Best Route, Closest Facility, Allocation, OD-Cost Matrix, Network Partitioning (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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Shortest Path Analysis

Shortest path analysis finds the path with the minimum cumulative impedance between nodes on a network. The path may connect just two nodes – an origin and a destination – or have specific stops between the nodes.

Shortest path analysis helps a delivery person set up a schedule for dozens of stops.

Figure Shows Link Impedance Matrix Values Betwee Cities on a …

Figure represents link impedance matrix values between cities on a road network.

Best Route

Whether finding a simple route between two locations or one that visits several locations, people usually try to take the best route. But “best route” can mean different things in different situations.

Best route can be the quickest, shortest, or most scenic route, depending on the impedance chosen.

Impedance time, distance

Figure Shows to Find the Quickest Route between Two Stops

We can use time as impedance. The quickest path is shown in blue and has a total length of 4.5 miles, which takes 8 minutes to traverse.

Closest Facility

First computes shortest path from the selected location to all candidate facilities.

Figure Shows to Find the Route from an Incident to All Facil …

Closest facility finds the closest facility, such as a hospital, fire station, or ATM, to any location on a network.


Allocation measures the efficiency of public facilities, such as fire station, or school resources, in terms of their service areas. Allocation is the study of the spatial distribution of resources through a network. Because the distribution of the resources defines the extent of the service area, the main objective of spatial allocation analysis is to measure the efficiency of these resources.

Allocation algorithms use these centers as destinations then model how people or goods will travel through the network to get there. The result is a map that shows the areas served by each service facility e. g. a school or health centre catchment area, or the warehouse՚s distribution area.

Figure Shows Allocation of Service Areas of Two Fire Station …

In figure, service areas of two fire stations within 2-minute response time.

Location Allocation

Location-allocation helps you choose which facilities from a set of facilities to operate based on their potential interaction with demand points.

Location-allocation defines problem of matching supply, demand and distance. In that supply consists of facilities at point of locations, and demand may consist of points, lines or areas.

Figure Shows Location-Allocation Network

OD-Cost Matrix

OD cost matrix is a table that contains the network impedance from each origin to each destination.

Figure Shows Find the Least-Cost between Each Origin and Its …
Figure Shows the Quickest Route from Miwaukee to Detroit Ta …

Network Partitioning-Trace

Trace analysis is performed when we want to understand which part of network is ‘conditionally connected’ to a chosen node on the network, known as trace origin.

Figure Shows Three Network Partitioning-Trace

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