Basic Elements of GIS: Elements of GIS and How They Together Present Spatial Information (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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Data (plural of word datum) are the raw form of information that is used by computers for processing. Data are observations made by monitoring the real world. Data can be in form of basic facts like name, age, address, phone number, etc.


Information is the collection of data in a meaningful and useful form. It is the arranged data for a specific reason. Data is worth only if it conveys some meaning. A meaningless data is not worth and must not be the part of the research. Therefore, all data, which has some meaning, is called information. Data and Information is not same.

Data is raw but information is organized form of data.


Database is a collection of related data. Database data is integrated, structured, and shared. Therefore, operations can be update, insert, and help retrieve data from the database.

Database Management System (DBMS)

DBMS consists of collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access those data.

Management done by DBMS:

  • Structure for the storage and the prevision of mechanisms to recover and manipulate information.
  • No inconsistency in results, if data is shared among several users.

Database System

Database System is a particular class of data processing system characterized by software (DBMS) , numerous users, and central shared pool of database.


Relational DBMS have established themselves as the primary means of data storage of information systems with structured in database tables, fields, and records.

There is a relation that is built between 2 different tables.

Example: Table 1 explains name and date of birth while table 2 explains task description. So both the tables are related such that userID of one table is related to TaskID of another table and this explains the meaning of RDBMS or relational database as given below.

Relational Database with 2 Relationships

RDBMS is commonly used in GIS where there are multiple tables on information about certain location and a single column can relate those tables to one another.

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