Attribute Data and Data Models: Hierarchical, Network, Relational, and Object-Oriented (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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Attribute Data

The Attribute Data describes the characteristics of spatial features. For raster data, each cell has a value that correspond attribute to the spatial feature at that location.

A cell is tightly bound to its cell value. For vector data amount of attribute data to be associated with a spatial feature vary significantly. A road may only have the attributes of length and speed limit while soil polygon may have numerous properties like texture, ingredient and more.

The most common data models are:

This Diagram Shows Common Data Models of Attribute Data

Tabular Model

The simple tabular model stores attribute data as sequential data files with fixed formats for the location of attribute values in a predefined record structure. This type of data model is outdated in any method of checking data integrity. That is stored in rows and columns in a database and can be linked to spatial data.

Tabular Model Stores Attribute Data as Sequential Data Files

Hierarchical Model

The hierarchical database organizes data in a tree structure. Data is structured downward in a hierarchy of tables. In the hierarchy can have one or more children, but any child can have only one parent.

The Hierarchical Database Organizes Data in a Tree Structure

Network Model

The Network database organizes data in a network structure. Any column in a complex structure can be linked to any other. Network data model is connected to each other. This model is allows more than one parent. Like a tree structure,

The Network Model Oraganizes Data in a Network Structure

Relational Model

The Relational database organizes data in tables. Each table, is identified by a unique table name, and is organized by rows and columns. Column has a unique name and row represent one record in the table. one table can create more than relationship with table.

One-To-One Relationship

Here one and only one record in the destination table is related to one and only one record in the source table.

Matching Cities with States

One-To-Many Relationship

This means that one record in the destination table may be related to more than one record in the source table.

Matching Institutes with Cities

Many-To-One Relationship

This type of relationship is just opposite to the One-to-Many Relationship. Here two or more records in the destination table may be related to one record in the source table.

Matching List 1 with List 2

Object Oriented Model

The object-oriented database model manages data through objects. An object is a collection of data elements and operations that considered as a single entity.

The Object-Oriented Database Model Manages Data through Obje …

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