Functions in GIS: Data Capture, Data Transfer, Data Storage, Querying the Data, Analysis and Presentation Data (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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This Diagram Shows Process of GIS Functions

Data Capture

Data used in GIS often come from many sources. They are mainly obtained from Manual Digitization and Scanning of aerial photography, paper maps, and existing digital data sets. Satellite, Remote sensing satellite imagery GPS are data input sources of GIS. There are two basic methods of digitization – Manual Digitization and Scanning.

Data Transfer

In point of view this group is the most important for the future GIS. The future GIS imported digital spatial data and store the database of the institution.

The main functions of the node are as follows:

  • Read and store the data in original format
  • Recognize and validate the data
  • Transform the format of the data
  • Store the geographic data using coordinates as keys
  • Store the attribute data

Data Storage

Once the data have been digitally complied, digital map files in the GIS are stored on magnetic and other storage is based on Generic Data Model that is used to convert map data to a digital form. There are two data models are store the data: Raster Data and Vector Data. The store functions are activated on this stage in the case of geographic and compound sets. The maps files stored in coordinate formats.

Querying the Data

The basic function of the GIS with reduced functionality is the varied possibility of querying. The data querying the proper reporting on map sketches and in tabular form. New possibilities in querying appear when the data are prepared according to the object-oriented approach and the GIS software is capable to manage this model.


The analysis functions use the spatial attribute and non-spatial attributes in the database to the real world. Geographic analysis facilitates the study of real-world processes by developing and applying model. The objective of geographic analysis is to useful information to satisfy the requirements.

Presentation Data

The main task of the GIS software is to determine proper default values for lines, colours, filling patterns, symbols, text. The presentation node will contain the following functions:

  • Adjust
  • Symbolize
  • Graphics
  • Tables
  • 3D view

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