Basic Geometric Transformations: Rotate, Translate, and Scale (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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The process of transformation, maps every point from one coordinate space to another. Using transforms, one can rotate, translate, and scale content freely in two-dimensional space.

The effect of transformation varies from change of position and direction, to a uniform change of scale, and to changes in shape and size.

Most Important Primary Geometric Transformation

The three primary processes that must occur, are translation, rotation, and scale change.

This Diagram Shows Three Primary Transformation Process


It is the process of moving each point of an object by the same distance in the same direction. It involves shifting the origin of the current coordinate system horizontally and vertically by a specific amount.

Translation is simply the movement of parts or all of graphic objects to a different location on the Cartesian surface.

This Figure Shows the Transformation Process is Translation

Scale Change

Scaling changes the size of the grid. It lets the stretching and shrinking of the grid along the X and Y axes independently.

Scale change is also very useful because of the need to compare differently scaled maps and to output in different scales as well. This is done by multiplying the overall X coordinate extent by a scale factor Sx and Y coordinate extent by a scale factor Sy.

This Figure Shows Scale Change Transformation Process


A rotation is a transformation that is performed by spinning the object around a fixed point known as rotation. It can be performed clockwise as well as counterclockwise.

Rotation is used during the process of projection and inverse projection.

This Figure Shows Rotating Clockwise and Counterclockwise

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